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Sociology modern Society and culture

Sociology modern Society and culture


1. According to C. Wright Mills, the sociological imagination is a quality of mind that
a. is useful for understanding large complex issues, but not everyday problems.
b. forces people to try harder to cope with their immediate “milieu.”
c. is beyond the intellectual abilities of most non-sociologists.
d. allows people to see the connections between public issues and their personal troubles.
e. is most useful for understanding simple societies.

2. To find a remedy for a public issue of social structure, Mills said we should
look to
a. the biography of the individual involved.
b. the psychology of the individual involved.
c. the larger social context.
d. the nature of the society’s religions.
e. All of the above
3. In Lisa J. McIntyre’s discussion, Hernando Washington was surprised that he was in so much trouble with the police. McIntyre said that in order to understand Hernando’s puzzlement, we need to understand which of the following facts about the social milieu in which he was raised?
a. Hernando was raised in what some have called “the baddest part of town.”
b. Police did not consider Hernando’s neighborhood a part of the community that they were pledged “to serve and to protect.”
c. In Hernando’s part of the city, people’s actions didn’t always have the same consequences as they did in other parts of the city.
d. The social structure of Hernando’s neighborhood was such that people had to rely on their own resources because they couldn’t rely on the establishment for help.
e. All of the above
4. The researchers, Stephanie Sanford and Donna Eder found that a key component of jokes and humor among the adolescents they studied was:
a. it is used as a way to be accepted in a new peer group
b. discussion of sexual topics can become competitive
c. it allows them to act more mature in their peer groups, even if they aren’t
d. gives them the opportunity to appear rebellious in school
e. all of the above
5. In his research on miscounting racial group sizes by Charles A. Gallagher
a. examines why whites think their group is in the national majority
b. examines why blacks believe they are the largest minority group
c. found that people with low incomes tend to miscount all groups
d. wanted to explore why whites exaggerate other racial groups
e. none of the above
6. Gallagher concluded his research by saying that his findings
a. illustrate that many whites are racist
b. can be used as a model for conducting research on race relations
c. model racial tensions between all groups
d. ‘race-based’ government programs such as affirmative action do work
e. show that whites view themselves as the majority racial group
7. According to Lisa J. McIntyre, which of the following statements regarding
professional ethics is false?
a. The primary goal of professional codes of ethics is to prevent illegal behavior.

b. Professional ethics are intended to promote altruistic behavior.
c. Sometimes it may be ethical for a professional to act in ways that some
nonprofessionals may regard as immoral.
d. Professionals are expected to be ethical.
e. None of the above
8. Philip Meyer writes that as a result of Stanley Milgram’s work, researchers
could argue that
a. Hitler, or someone like Hitler, could never come to power in the United States.
b. situations can be structured to make people do unusual things.
c. only a good moral upbringing can be counted on to keep average people from going along with brutality.
d. only powerful officials (e.g., from government or corporations) can succeed in getting people to act against their consciences.
e. All of the above
9. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Nearly all of the subjects in Milgram’s research refused to participate once
they realized that they were being asked to hurt people.
b. Many of the participants (the “learners”) in Milgram’s research ended up
receiving real electrical shocks (although these weren’t actually life-threatening).
c. Germans, especially former Nazis, were much more likely to shock learners than were American subjects.
d. People who ended up enjoying the experiment the most were the subjects who went all the way to the end of the dial to administer lethal shocks.
e. None of the above
10. According to anthropologist Clyde Kluckhohn,
a. across societies, customs differ because people have different instincts.
b. a Beethoven sonata is much more of a cultural product than is a humble cooking pot.
c. culture really only has an impact on people once they are old enough to go to school.
d. as long as they are sensitive, people from one society find it relatively easy
to understand the complexities of the norms and customs of other societies.
e. the main task of the human infant is to learn the answers (that is, how to
do things) that have been worked out by people long dead.
11. According to Kluckhohn, all human cultures
a. have language.
b. provide for aesthetic expression.
c. supply standardized orientations to such problems as death & sexuality.
d. are designed to perpetuate group solidarity.
e. all of the above
12. Horace Miner describes Nacireman rituals in order to illustrate
a. the negative perversity of their behavior.
b. the primitive mentality of these people.
c. the fact that every society’s customs probably look odd to outsiders.
d. the degree to which so many Nacirema suffer from mental illness.
e. the power of spiritual leaders within Nacirema society.
13. According to Elijah Anderson, the code of the streets
a. specifies the rules of the road in those parts of the city in which official
traffic rules are not well enforced.
b. governs interpersonal behavior in public, including the use of violence.
c. governs the behavior of specific street gangs (other gangs follow the so-
called law of the neighborhood).
d. is a kind of secret language used by kids so their parents can’t understand them.
e. is a jargon used by drug users to disguise their talk about illegal substances.
14. For kids on the streets,
a. when might makes right, toughness, not humility, is a virtue.
b. it’s dangerous to ignore people who dis you.
c. “juice” is the important thing—you’ve got to show heart.
d. having lots of stuff can enhance your reputation.
e. all of the above
15. In her article on “Girl Watching”, Beth A. Quinn says that this activity
depends on
a. the age of the men involved
b. the ethnicity of the men involved
c. the context in which it occurs as well as the men who participate
d. whether the women/girls are responsive
e. both a and b
16. As Quinn discusses her research’s findings and their relationship to anti-sexual harassment training programs, she states that males’ sexually harassing behaviors come from their
a. lack of knowledge about the negative impact of their behavior
b. learned sexist attitudes
c. sexual desire for a particular woman
d. gendered boundaries and identities are established and maintained
e. all of the above
17. What does David Grazian refer to the following rituals that males engage in:
a. flirting
b. courtship
c. sexual conquests
d. “girl hunting”
e. all of the above
18. Grazian says that social inequality is reproduced between men and women through girl hunting because
a. men become conditioned not to feel empathy toward women who are
targeted by other males for sexual conquest
b. it creates groups of dominant and subordinate males in girl hunting
c. male identity and boundary maintenance become key elements
d. the social context of girl hunting becomes an important factor
e. all of the above

19. According to E. Goffman, when an individual enters into the presence of some
other person, he or she
a. will not speak until spoken to.
b. will leave until a proper “script” is perfected.
c. will seek to make a good first impression on the other.
d. will attempt to find out information about the other.
e. C and D
20. According to Goffman, the difference between the expressions one gives and
the expressions one gives off is
a. the difference between projective and defensive techniques.
b. related to the difference between status and role.
c. that actors give expressions, and audiences give off expressions.
d. is that one gives expressions using verbal symbols, whereas one gives off expressions using body language or props of some kind.
e. none of the above.
21. A crucial fact about Philip G. Zimbardo’s study of the prison was that
a. people with sadistic tendencies (as measured by psychological tests) were
assigned to the role of guard, whereas people with criminal tendencies were assigned to the role of prisoner.
b. subjects filled out extensive questionnaires about their attitudes toward crime and punishment.
c. each subject was randomly assigned (by a flip of a coin) to play the role of guard or prisoner.
d. the experiment was repeated three times to check for reliability.
e. the mock prison setting did not seem all that realistic to those involved.
22. According to Gerta Foff Paules’s study, the relationship between waitresses and their customers
a. is one in which the customer is clearly in charge.
b. should be of little interest to sociologists.
c. can be understood only by taking into account the broader organizational context in which it takes place.
d. is like the relationship between coaches & players on a basketball team.
e. becomes more complex when the customer has been drinking alcohol.
23. Which of the following research methods did Professors Adams and Bettis NOT use in their study of cheerleading?
a. observation of cheerleaders
b. interviews with middle school cheerleaders
c. interviews with adults involved in cheerleading
d. inspection of documents, newspaper articles, and handouts
e. none of these
24. According to Adams and Bettis, in the cheerleading prep classes, prospective cheerleaders were told
a. to focus on what counts: their athletic skills
b. to show off their athletic skills but then to give the judges a sexy look
c. to just be themselves because judges hate phonies.
d. to forget about being “girly-girls,” because cheerleading is a real sport
e. none of these
25. Eric Anderson, in his study of masculinity and now it manifests among male
cheerleaders, he refers to a concept he calls “feminized terrain”. What does he mean by this term?
a. activities that only females can legally participate in
b. activities that only females traditionally participate in
c. activities that females are socialized into participating in
d. A and B
e. B and C
26.To analyze his data on how masculinity functions among male cheerleaders,
Anderson says that it is important to understand:
a. people do not chose their gendered identity
b. gendered identity is based on sociocultural constructs
c. organizations and their rules create institutionalized gendered identity
d. gendered identity is constructed through reinforced myths and acceptable norms of behavior in a society
e. all of the above
27. According to Harvey Molotch, the lines in front of women’s bathrooms tend
to be longer than lines in front of men’s bathrooms primarily because
a. more women than men attend public events.
b. women tend to visit bathrooms in pairs – men visit them separately
c. women use their time in public bathrooms to groom gossip; men don’t
d. of the different cultural conventions (norms) that dictate how men and women urinate.
e. women refuse to use public toilets efficiently.
28. With which statement would Molotch disagree?
a. What appears to be equal treatment may yield unequal results.
b. Gender-blindness (like racial-blindness) may yield unequal results.
c. Equality must be assessed in terms of cultural as well as physical facts.
d. Women need to use the space allotted to them more efficiently.
e. Policy makers ought to listen to what sociologists have to say.

29. In his article “Cadaver Stories and the Emotional Socialization of Medical
Students” Frederick W. Hafferty says cadaver stories incorporate specific
functions of medical school and training for students. Those include the following:

a. allows students to begin to understand the experiences of the anatomy lab
b. helps them distance themselves emotionally from the person who has died
c. instructs students in how they should react and feel in dissecting human
d. clarifies for students that there are acceptable norms of behavior and emotional states for them in and around the anatomy lab
e. all of the above
30. Hafferty says that through his study of cadaver stories and how they function for medical students, he became aware of gendered behavior and identity.

a. these stories reflect the changing work place regarding attitudes of gender
b. they also reflect the role and function of gender in the broader society
c. gender is consistently minimized as being important in this context
d. A and B
e. B and C

31. According to Gwynne Dyer’s article, basic training in the military is
a. a conversion process.
b. a passage.
c. a lot like summer camp.
d. where men learn to die for idealism.
e. All of the above
32. According to Dyer, soldiers are willing to kill and die because
a. they believe strongly in the abstract ideals for which they fight.
b. they have learned to love killing, but know that in order to kill they must
be willing to die.
c. they have pledged their allegiance to such abstract symbols as eagles and
flags, which represent their patriotism.
d. they want self-respect and respect from others.
e. basic training uncovered their natural human instincts.
33. According to Schmid and Jones, a prison sentence constitutes a “massive
assault” on the identity of those imprisoned because
a. of the manifest brutality of the other prisoners.
b. of the latent brutality of the guards.
c. their self-definition is forced to change.
d. of the prisoners’ isolation from all social interaction.
e. All of the above
34. Schmid and Jones gathered their data from
a. experiments within a mock prison setting.
b. self-administered questionnaires from a sample of 493 prisoners.
c. participant observation and twenty interviews.
d. existing statistics obtained from the U.S. and Canadian Bureau of Prisons
e. All of the above
35. From her study of the existing research on studies of prison guards,
Professor Zimmer learned that most social scientists tended to believe that
a. women could not work in men’s prisons
b. in order to be successful prison guards in men’s prisons, women must do the job just as men did
c. the structural constraints placed on the role of prison guards could not accommodate women
d. the job of prison guard offered many opportunities for role-making rather than just role-taking
e. none of these
36. With which of the following statements would Professor Zimmer agree?
a. One problem with female prison guards is that it is impossible for them
to produce the image of personal and physical dominance that are
necessary to do the job.
b. Most women guards try to perform their job in the traditional [male] fashion.
c. Women guards exploit aspects of the female gender role to do their jobs
d. Woman tend to dislike their jobs and quit within 1-2 years of being hired
e. Male prison guards tend to be very supportive of their female colleagues

Section 1 to 4 (12 points each) Total for Section 2 = 48 pts

Choose 1 question from the two that are given below for each section. These are not mini-essays. Depending on your writing style and the content of your answer, you should be able to answer them in 300 – 400 words each.
Put the number of the question you are answering, and single-space your answer.
Remember: This is not a “brain-dump” of all you know on each topic. Show you have a clear understanding of the material. Even though this Section II is Short Answer, organize your thoughts around a logical, theoretical argument.
1) Begin with a Thesis Statement: it defines the goal of your answer 2) Present
main points supported by examples from your course readings OR you may use examples from your personal experiences, if they are applicable. . 3) A
Conclusion summarizes your argument(s) and redefines your Thesis Statement.
These 3 steps would also be employed in a longer essay.  II. These Short Answers are to be your own thoughts and analysis; what perspective you are developing from the reading.

Follow directions for Answer selections.

Section 1 Lectures Choose 1
1. Analyze and explain in what ways using the sociological perspective makes us seem less in control of our lives. In what ways does it give us greater power over our surroundings?
2. Guided by sociology’s three major theoretical approaches covered in lecture, identify what type of questions sociologist might ask about the following: a)television b) war c) humor d) colleges & universities
If you choose #2, create two questions for each of the 4 topics.

Section 2 Lectures Choose 1
1. In the US, hot dogs, hamburgers, French fries, and ice cream have long been considered national favorites. Explain what cultural patterns help explain the widespread popularity of these kinds of foods.
2. Identify and explain the cultural lessons that games such as king of the mountain, tag, or keep-away teach children in America? What about a schoolroom spelling bee? What cultural values are expressed by children’s stories such as The Little Engine That Could and popular board games such as Chutes and Ladders, Monopoly and Risk? (If you are not familiar with this children story, you may substitute one that you know and explain its cultural value, etc.)

Section 3 Lectures Choose 1

1. Consider ways in which a physical disability can be a master status.
Determine what assumptions people commonly make about the mental ability of someone with a physical disability such as cerebral palsy. Explain what assumptions are made about that person’s sexuality.
2. George Jean Nathan once remarked, “I only drink to make other people interesting.” Determine what does this mean in terms of reality construction.
Identify what the elements of humor are in this comment.

Section 4 Lectures Choose 1

1. Explain how primary groups different from secondary groups. Identify examples of each group in your own life.
2. Sociologist, George Ritzer has written extensively about a concept he developed called “McDonaldization”. He suggests that fast-food restaurants should carry the following label:
“Sociologists warn us that habitual use of McDonald’s systems are destructive to our physical and psychological well-being as well as to society as a whole.” (1996: pg 1)
Do you agree or disagree with his statement? Explain your reasoning.


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